⑬⑭ advance organierとは 


読解の前に、静止画または動画のVisualでスキーマを刺激した上に、advance organizer(単にDescription、またはQA)でも入れると、どのような効果があるかを4つの分散分析でデータ化したものでした。

この実験は、screen上のcomputer-based textなのですが、実際のキャプチャー画面が掲載されているので、とても親切だと思いました。自分も紀要つくる時は、気を付けたい点ですね。

The process of transforming incoming information/knowledge elements into schemata requires considerable cognitive mental effort.

Insufficient background knowledge hinders top-down processing of the new information, and limited language competence of second/foreign language learners makes the decoding process even more difficult.

Dual-coding theory (Paivio 1971, 1978, 1990, 1991)

they are retained in working memory and retrieved later from long-term memory is higher than when the presentation contains verbal information alone (Kobayashi, 1986).


For a successful integration process to occur, both verbal and its corresponding visual information must be held in the working memory simultaneously.

Advanced Organizerについて。

An advance organizer is defined as an instructional unit that is introduced in advance of direct instructions.

n advance organizer is designed to give learners a general overview of the new material before the actual confrontation, and it creates a cognitive connection between established knowledge and new material in terms of the relevant concepts, therefore enhancing the "familiarity and learn-ability of new material…"(Ausubel, 1963, p. 82).


Using fifth graders as subjects, Hanley, Herron, and Cole (1995) compared two visual advance organizers and pictures, plus the teacher’s narrative, in the comprehension and retention of a written French passage. The result suggested that the video advance organizer was superior in enhancing the comprehension of the foreign text.


Despite the overwhelming excitement for animated visualization, research studies have not been able to conclude that it is any more effective than static visualization.

animation be used only when its attributes are congruent to the learning task. He also cautioned that complex animation may be confusing for novice learners without prior knowledge in the content area


visuals and specifically, videotexts such as TV commercials, movies, and dramas can enhance language acquisition by providing students various discourse contexts and reducing the anxiety typically experienced in second/foreign language learning.


students receiving static diagrams with text scored significantly higher than those receiving animation with narration

static illustration effectively reduce extraneous cognitive load possibly induced by animation and narration, and on the other hand promotes germane processing

(1)Animation embedded with a question advance organizer (A+Q) is more effective than static visuals alone (SV).



(2) Animated visuals were found to be equally effective as static visuals.

animation alone did not have an effect in assisting with the understanding of the material as expected.